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Apr 06, 2019

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ask everyone to take good care of your health and do all necessary vaccines. There are more than 20 vaccines, most part of which has pivotal importance for our lives.

In recent decades the anti-vaccination movement is becoming stronger. Its adepts believe, that all vaccines are just about commerce and the diseases are not so scaring, as doctors say. But over the years, these vaccines have prevented countless cases of disease and saved millions of lives. So it’s worth to get them.

14-vaccines-that-could-save-your-life

All infants, children, teens, and adults need to be vaccinated at least from these 14 diseases.

1. Diphtheria

It’s an infectious bacterial disease, transmitted by airborne droplets, and affects the oropharynx, as well as the larynx, bronchi, and skin. 10% of patients with diphtheria die, despite the treatment.

Who needs to be vaccinated: all adults.

When: after the last vaccination at 16, every decade (at 26, 36, 46, etc.). If you were vaccinated in childhood, but you missed a routine vaccination as an adult, you need to receive 1 dose of vaccine, regardless of whether you are 26 or 56.

What: babies and children younger than 7 years old receive DTaP (diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTaP) vaccines) or DT (diphtheria and tetanus (DT) vaccines), while older children and adults receive Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (Tdap) vaccines) and Td (tetanus and diphtheria (Td) vaccines).

2. Polio

Polio (poliomyelitis) is caused by the poliovirus and can invade an infected person’s brain and spinal cord, causing paralysis.

Who needs to be vaccinated: all children and adults.

When: 2 months old, 4 months old, 6 through 18 months old, 4 through 6 years old.

What: Inactivated polio vaccine (IPV).

3. Mumps

Mumps typically starts with fever, headache, muscle aches, tiredness, and loss of appetite. After this people face up with swelling of their salivary glands.

Who needs to be vaccinated: all children, two doses.

When: first dose at 12 through 15 months of age, and the second dose at 4 through 6 years of age.

What: MMR vaccine.

4. Influenza

It’s caused by the influenza virus and can be easily transmitted from person to person, constantly changing. 5–10% of adults and 20–30% of children are infected with it every year.

Who needs to be vaccinated: all adults, especially pregnant women, people with chronic diseases and the elderly over 65 years old.

When: every year, until the end of October, but if you do not have time, you can later.

What: it is better if the vaccine contains at least 15 µg of hemagglutinin – for example, Ultrix, Vaxigrip, Influvax (they contain 3 virus strains), as well as Vaxigrip Tetra, Fluarix Tetra, Influvax Tetra (protect from 4 strains).

5. Hepatitis B

This is a viral infection, which is transmitted with the blood and other body fluids of a sick person and affects the liver. Hepatitis B often leads to cirrhosis and liver cancer, and about 1 million people die of it every year.

Who needs to be vaccinated: all adults.

When: once in a lifetime, according to the scheme 0-1-6 (2nd dose a month after the 1st, 3rd — 6 months after the 2nd). If you have been vaccinated with just one dose, you need to get two more doses with an interval of at least 2 months.

What: vaccines “Engerix B”, “Shanvac -B”, “Infanrix Nexa”, DTP-GEP V.

6. Whooping cough

This acute bacterial infection is transmitted by airborne droplets. The main symptom is a spasmodic cough.

Who needs to be vaccinated: all adults, and especially those, who are planning to have a child in the near future.

When: once in all adult life.

What: babies and children younger than 7 years old receive DTaP, while older children and adults receive Tdap.

7. Tetanus

This acute bacterial infection is caused by tetanus bacillus and damages the nervous system and seizures.

Who needs to be vaccinated: all adults.

When: 1 time in 10 years.

What: babies and children younger than 7 years old receive DTaP or DT, while older children and adults receive Tdap and Td.

8. Measles

The severe viral disease is transmitted by coughing, sneezing and touching with a 100% chance. A sick person before the onset of symptoms infects 90% of unvaccinated people with whom he contacts. Measles is one of the main causes of infant mortality.

Who needs to be vaccinated: adults who have not been ill, have not been vaccinated against measles before or have received only one dose of measles vaccine.

When: once in a lifetime.

What: “Priorix” and “MMR II” (for measles, rubella, and parotitis) or “Priorix Tetra” and MMRV (for measles, rubella, parotiditis, and chickenpox).

9. Chickenpox

The patient is contagious a few days before the onset of the rash. In childhood, chickenpox is easily overcoming, but in adulthood, it can take more serious forms.

Who needs to be vaccinated: adults who have not suffered from chickenpox.

When: once – 2 doses with an interval of at least 6 weeks.

What: “Varilrix” or the combined vaccines against measles, rubella, parotitis, and chickenpox – “Priorix Tetra” and MMRV.

10. Rubella

A viral disease is transmitted by airborne droplets and usually proceeds without complications, but in 15% of pregnant women leads to the death of the embryo or the child may have a hearing, sight, heart diseases, autism, diabetes and so on.

Who needs to be vaccinated: adults who have not been ill, have not been vaccinated against rubella earlier or were vaccinated once, especially girls from 18 to 25 years old.

When: once.

What: MMR vaccine.

11. Haemophilus influenzae type b

Haemophilus influenzae is a virus that could cause bacteremia, pneumonia, epiglottitis, and acute bacterial meningitis.

Who needs to be vaccinated: all children younger than 5 years old in the United States.

When: until 5 years or elder, if a person has special medical conditions.

What: PedvaxHIB, ActHIB, Hiberix.

12. Human papillomavirus (HPV)

This is the most common sexually transmitted viral infection. There are 190 types of viruses that cause HPV, and 13 of them lead to the development of cancers of the genital organs and oropharynx. 70% of cervical cancers are caused by HPV.

Who needs to be vaccinated: both men and women.

When: it is most effective to vaccinate before the first sexual contact. You need 3 doses (2nd — after 1-2 months after 1st, 3rd — after 2-4 months after 2nd, depending on the type of vaccine).

What: Vaccines “Gardasil” and “Cervarix”.

13. Meningococcal infection

The acute infectious bacterial disease, which is transmitted by airborne droplets, is especially dangerous for children under 5 years. Among complications after the illness can be brain damage, hearing loss, and gangrene.

Who needs to be vaccinated: young adults under 20-25 years old.

When: 2 or 3 doses at intervals of 1-6 months. The vaccine forms a lasting immunity for 3-5 years.

What: “Menactra”, “Bexsero”, “Trumenba”.

14. Pneumococcal

A whole complex of diseases caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria (transmitted by airborne droplets): acute otitis media, pneumonia, sepsis, meningitis, and so on. Older people over 65 and children under 5 are most commonly affected by pneumococcal infection.

Who needs to be vaccinated: adults 50–65 years old.

When: 2 doses at intervals of 1–5 years.

What: “Pneumovax 23”, “Prevenar 13”, “SynFlorix”, PCV13, PPSV23.

Also remember, when you are planning your vacation especially to exotic countries, it’s worth to get vaccines against:

  • Adenovirus;
  • Anthrax;
  • Cholera;
  • Japanese Encephalitis (JE);
  • Rabies;
  • Smallpox;
  • Tuberculosis;
  • Typhoid Fever;
  • Yellow Fever.

Take care of your own health. More information about vaccines you can find at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website.

What is your attitude to vaccination?

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